Premature babies or preemies are born before attaining full development inside the mother’s womb. If a baby is born before attaining 24 weeks of age inside the womb then the chances of survival is very less.Â If it is born after 37 weeks of gestation then it will be a normal baby. This is because by 37th week of gestation the internal organs will develop completely and there after the baby gains weight inside the womb. A baby born before attaining 37 weeks of gestation will have some problems as their internal organs won’t be fully developed. Such babies need special care and they needs time to start their normal activities like crawling, walking, talking etc.
Problems of Preemies
Low Blood Pressure
Low blood pressure is a very serious problem associated with preemies and it develops soon after their birth. It can be a result of infection, medicines that the mother took during pregnancy, blood loss or fluid loses. An immediate blood transfusion or drugs or even a modified intake of fluids will help to save the baby.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
This is the most common problem seen in premature babies. Here the lungs will be immature and unable to perform the task of respiration. There will be a substance called surfactant in the lungs which will help the lungs to expand and take more oxygen. This substance will be lacking in premature babies. More than that sometimes the small air sacs in lungs will be accumulated with fluid and protein and thus impair the respiratory function. In certain other cases the air sacs may collapse and makes the breathing difficult
Retinopathy of Prematurity
The light sensitive inner lining of the eye gets affected and in extreme conditions it may leads to loss of vision. The abnormal development of blood vessels with in the eyes causes this problem and is commonly seen in kids having a birth weight less than 1.25 kg. .
Child born before attaining 30 weeks gestation is susceptible to this disease. A part of the brain that regulates respiratory process stops functioning and thus it leads to reduces pulse rate, no or less respiratory rate. Then the baby is artificially stimulated to fill air with in the air passages with nasal devices or medicine
Jaundice occurs when the level of bilirubin increases in the body. Excess of bilirubin in the blood may also causes brain damage. The child is then kept under UV lights which help to eliminate the excess bilirubin from the body and even blood transfusion is recommended for extreme cases.
In most cases the preemies have to be fed by intravenous fluids as they will be very weak to suck the milk.
Premature babies are susceptible to infections and diseases. This is because they may have low immunity power. Hence such babies have to be keep clean and neat to avoid the infections.